On the Cardio-vascular system
- Cardiac output is increased 25 to 30%.
- Patient develops orthostatic hypo tension - a feeling of weakness and dizziness when they first get up after a period of rest.
- Formation of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
On the Respiratory system
- Decreased chest expansion and decreased chest movements resulting in the decreased ventilation of the lungs.
- Stasis and pooling of secretions leads to hypostatic pneumonia.
- When a patients respiratory movements are decreased, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs is severely affected and this leads to tissue hypoxia.
On the Gastro-intestinal tract
- Development of anorexia due to general weakness, worry and boredom accompanying immobility.
- Development of constipation due to change in the diet, changes in the daily routine, decrease in the level of activity, strange experiences such as use of a bedpan, unnatural position used for defecation, etc.
On the Renal function
- Difficulty in urination due to lack of privacy, use of bedpans, unnatural positions. This leads to bladder distension.
- Urinary stasis and formation of renal calculi.
On the Metabolism
- Decreased muscle tone.
- Muscle atrophy.
On the Musculo-skeletal system
- Demineralization of the bones.
- Contractures of the muscle.
- Stiffness and pain in the joints.
- Muscle cramps.
- Foot drop.
On the Mental activity
- Lethargy, loneliness and depression.
- Anxiety and insomnia.
- Emotional disturbances leading to hostility.
- Mental disturbances leading to neurosis and psychosis.
On the Skin
- Bed sore