Friday, 9 September 2011


On the Cardio-vascular system

  • Cardiac output is increased 25 to 30%.
  • Patient develops orthostatic hypo tension - a feeling of weakness and dizziness when they first get up after a period of rest.
  • Formation of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

On the Respiratory system
  • Decreased chest expansion and decreased chest movements resulting in the decreased ventilation of the lungs.
  • Stasis and pooling of secretions leads to hypostatic pneumonia.
  • When a patients respiratory movements are decreased, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs is severely affected and this leads to tissue hypoxia.

On the Gastro-intestinal tract
  • Development of anorexia due to general weakness, worry and boredom accompanying immobility.
  • Development of constipation due to change in the diet, changes in the daily routine, decrease in the level of activity, strange experiences such as use of a bedpan, unnatural position used for defecation, etc.

On the Renal function
  • Difficulty in urination due to lack of privacy, use of bedpans, unnatural positions. This leads to bladder distension.
  • Urinary stasis and formation of renal calculi.

On the Metabolism
  • Decreased muscle tone.
  • Muscle atrophy.

On the Musculo-skeletal system
  • Demineralization of the bones.
  • Contractures of the muscle.
  • Stiffness and pain in the joints.
  • Muscle cramps.
  • Foot drop.

On the Mental activity
  • Lethargy, loneliness and depression.
  • Anxiety and insomnia.
  • Emotional disturbances leading to hostility.
  • Mental disturbances leading to neurosis and psychosis.

On the Skin
  • Bed sore

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