Saturday, 29 October 2011


Weaning is the transferring of an infant from breast feeding to normal feeding. Breast feed should not be stopped all of a sudden. Weaning can start from the 5th or 6th month. The process should be gradual. The child can be completely weaned at the end of 9th or 10th month. The breast milk can be replaced by cow's milk and some solid foods.

Points to remember in the introduction of solids to infant's diet.
  • Introduce only one new food item at a time. Allow the infant to become familiar with the same before starting the other.
  • Give very small quantity of any new foods.
  • Use very thin consistency when starting solid foods.
  • Bribes or threats should never be used to get a child to eat.
  • Whenever possible the child should be permitted to feed himself, but quietly give help when he shows his inability to eat.
  • Never force an infant to eat more of a food than what he takes willingly.
  • If after several trials, the baby dislikes a food, omit that item for a week or two and try it again. If the dislike persists, it is better to omit that food and substitute another.
  • Use foods of smooth consistency. When the baby is able to chew, gradually substitute finely chopped fruits and vegetables.
  • Mother or anyone feeding the baby must be careful to avoid showing any dislikes for the food given to the infant.
  • There should be choice for food.

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Friday, 28 October 2011

Do you feed your infant not with Breast milk? | Artificial feeding for infants

Bottle feeding
It so familiar now a days, people are started to feed their infants with foods other than breast milk, even though breast feeding is better and good for an infant in early weeks. Artificial feeding is considered as feeding of an infant with other foods in the absence of breast milk. Breast milk is often substitute by cow's milk. The cow's milk is substitute by dried milk, evaporated milk.
Cow's milk can be humanised by diluting, boiling and adding sugar. It is not desirable to give whole milk to infant in the first few weeks, because the protein in the cow's milk is not in a easily digestible form. By 6 to 8 months, the baby can have undiluted milk.

Preparation of formula
The milk formula should be planned to meet the nutritional requirements of the infant which is based on his age and weight.
Caloric requirement - 110 calories per kg of body weight.
Fluid requirement - 165 ml per kg of body weight.
Milk requirement - 110 to 130 ml per kg of body weight.
Number of feeds in 24 hours - 7.
Intervals - 3 hourly.

To prepare the milk formula for a day
Take 460 ml of milk, 140 ml of water and add 9 teaspoon of sugar and boil it and keep it in the refrigerator. For each feed take 85 ml of milk, warm it and feed the baby.

Different ways of feeding an infant.
  • By using the feeding bottle and teat.
  • By belcroy feeder.
  • By dropper.
  • By using spoon.

Important points to remember when artificial feeds are given
  1. Plan the formula according to the nutritional requirement of the baby.
  2. The feeding bottle, eat and other articles used for the feeding should be sterile.
  3. The milk feed should be warm. Test the temperature of the milk on your inner aspect of the wrist.
  4. The mother and the child should be in a comfortable position. the bottle should be held at 45 degree so that the teat is filled with milk.
  5. Ensure a slow and steady flow of milk by making a hole in the teat neither too big nor too small. This is done with a red hot needle.
  6. Burp the child in between and at the end of every feed.
  7. The mother should show no hurry or tension.
  8. The feed should be given at regular intervals.
  9. The mother should wash her hands thoroughly before preparing the feed and feeding the child.
  10. Offer a small quantity of water after every feed.
  11. Never pinch the baby's nose to make him to open his mouth; instead press his cheeks.
  12. Add vitamin A in the form of liver oil, vitamin C in the form of orange juice and iron in the form of egg yolk from the first month itself.

Monday, 24 October 2011

Breast Feeding

Breast feeding is the best food for the baby. It is not only gives nourishment's but suffice the baby's emotional needs. The advantages of breast feeding are :
  1. Makes the mother feel close to the baby emotionally.
  2. Gives the baby a sense of security or oneness with the mother.
  3. Protect the child from intestinal upsets as breast milk is sterile.
  4. Protect the child from communicable diseases as it contains protective antibodies.
  5. The mother's nipple satisfies the sucking reflex more adequately than the artificial nipple and infant is less likely to be a thumb sucker.
  6. Aids in the involution of the uterus.
  7. Breast milk is at correct temperature.
  8. Breast fed baby is said to have better tissue and bone development and resistance to infection.

The contra-indications for breast feeding are:
  • Diseases of the breast. eg; breast abscess, mastitis etc.
  • Active tuberculosis, cancer, cardiac diseases, contagious diseases.
  • Unconscious mother.
  • Mental diseases in the mother.
  • When another pregnancy ensues.
  • Premature babies and sick babies who are very weak to suck.
  • Babies with hare lip and cleft palate.


Obesity is one of the major health problem that is quite common now a days. Obesity is a condition in which an individual's bodyweight is higher than the normal due to excess deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. The common cause obesity is the excess intake of foods than normal requirements and lesser physical activity. Excess food that consumed is converted into fat and stored in the adipose tissues. Obesity is very common among people living in Western countries and other developing countries. Excess intake of foods and increase in the bodyweight leads to some other major complications.

Predisposing factors and occurrence of obesity
Many factors contribute to the development of obesity. Some of these are discussed below:

Age and sex: Obesity can occur at any age in either sex. But the incidence is higher in persons who lead sedentary lives.
Economic status: Obesity is found more common among the higher status groups as they consume excess food and do less physical work than the low status groups.
Physical activity: Obesity occurs rarely among persons who do hard physical work. With the extensive use of transport facilities and mechanisation of industry, the proportion of people who lead sedentary lives has been increasing. And this will increases the chance for obesity.
Body weight assessment
Proneness to obesity: Some individuals are more prone to develop obesity than others. Recent study's about obesity  have shown that these individuals are having usually large proportion of adipose tissue cells compared with normal persons. These cells are filled with fat when there is an excess intake of food.

Obesity can be assessed by (1)body weight (2)estimation of total body fat (3)skin-fold measurements. A persons whose body weight is higher than normal by 20 percent may be considered as obese. An approximate classification of different degrees of obesity based on body weight is given below:

Obesity leads to the development of several complications such as: (1)Physical disability, (2)Metabolic disorders, (3)Cardiac disorders, (4)Proneness to accidents and (5)Low life expectancy. Obese persons suffer more often from metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and heart diseases. They meet with accidents more frequently. The life expectancy is also reduced in view of the above hazards.

Sunday, 16 October 2011

Diseases and Diet modification


High blood pressure is a common disorder occurring among the middle and old age groups. This condition has been called as Essential hypertension. The predisposing factors for hypertension are (1) Hereditary, (2) Obesity and (3) Stress and strain of modern life. Systolic pressure over 150mmhg and diastolic pressure over 100mmhg is considered as hypertension. In some other disease conditions like cardiac diseases, CVA ( Cerebro Vascular Accident), the blood pressure seems to be increased. If an uncontrolled hypertensive state may leads to further complications like brain damage. The most recommended diet for hypertension are low sodium-low fat-low calorie diets.

Kempner's rice diet:
Kempner (1948) has recommended a rigid rice-fruit-sugar diet for hypertension. It provides about 2000KCal, 5g fat, 20g proteins, 150mg sodium and 200mg calorie. All the fruit juices are permitted. The fluid intake is limited to meet the daily needs. Vitamin supplements are given to meet the daily needs of different vitamins.


Renal calculi consists of mucopolysaccharides, urates, calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Urate and oxalate stones are the most common and cysteine stones are very rare.

Some of the factors contribute to the formation of stones are:
  • Climate
  • Occupation
  • Infection in the urinary tract
  • Dietary habits (habitual intake of foods rich in oxalate's,calcium phosphates and purines).
  • Hereditary

Diet for the prevention of renal calculi

A planned diet can prevent the occurring of kidney stones. The diet which is intended for the prevention of renal calculi should be low in oxalic acid and purine contents. The intakes of calcium and phosphates should also be reduced to a moderate level.Some of the diet that should be controlled are;
-Leafy vegetables.
-Milk and milk products.
-Whole cereals.
-Nuts and oil seeds.
-Meat,fish and egg.
-Tea, cocoa.

The subject should consume large amounts of fluids so as to increase the urine output to 2-2.5 litres per day.

Sunday, 9 October 2011

Doubt about Diabetes ?

Q. I was recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. How long after my meal should i check my blood glucose level?
Monitor your glucose level
A. A holistic management of diabetes requires frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels to know whether your diabetes is on the right track. If you have been recently diagnosed with diabetes, then this becomes an important part of your routine. For the initial few weeks, it is important that you monitor blood glucose levels regularly. Generally, pre-and post meal (two hours after start of the breakfast, lunch or dinner) sugars are checked. If you are on oral medications, you can check blood glucose less frequently. But if you're taking insulin shots, you may need to check more frequently, depending on your physician's instructions.

Add more Fluids
Q. How should i handle my diabetes when i am not feeling well and have no appetite? I have quit taking the medicines that release insulin during meals, because i am not eating anything. Am i doing right?
A. Food and blood glucose have directly proportional relationship. Even if your appetite is low, medications need to be continued. However you can adjust the dosages of your medications as advised by your physician. Your doctor may advise you to lower the ones which release insulin. It is important to take small and frequent meals and plenty of fluids when appetite is low.

Q. My grandmother had diabetes. I have heard that diabetes skips a generation, and my physician tells me she believes i have pre-diabetes. Is there any way i can prevent actual diabetes from happening?
Aerobic workouts
A. Genetics has a major contribution in diabetes. If you have a family history of diabetes, be it in 2-3 generations, you still have some predisposition to developing diabetes. Over and above this, if your lifestyle is not correct, you will develop diabetes very faster. For those who have pre-diabetes, intensive lifestyle modifications are required (maintaining body weight, reducing the consumption of excessive intake of saturated fats and refined carbohydrates. 45-60 minutes of aerobic and work related activity), so as to prevent development of diabetes. You need to get your blood glucose tested if you are more than 35 years of age.

Saturday, 8 October 2011


Oral Hygiene
The oral cavity or buccal cavity is bounded by the lips in front, the cheeks on the sides, the mandibles at the floor of the mouth, the palantine bones at the roof and the pharynx at the back. The mouth contains the tongue, the teeth, the gums and the openings of the salivary glands.

The teeth consists of three part - the crown, the neck and the root. The outer white part is the enamel, inner to the enamel is a hard substance called dentine and inside to the dentine is the pulp cavity which contains the blood vessels and nerves. The root is surrounded by the gums.
The buccal cavity is connected to the nasal cavity through the posterior nares, to the oesophagus and trachea through their openings. The two Eustachian tubes open from the pharynx to the middle ear.


Local Infections
The mouth presents all requirements for bacterial growth such as warmth, moisture, food supply from the residual foods on and between the teeth and a protected environment. The number of bacteria in the mouth depends upon the degree of cleanliness of the mouth. A very neglected mouth can cause various types of infections in the oral cavity.

Gingivitis : Inflammation of the gums.
Glossitis : Inflammation of the tongue.
Root abscess : Pus formation in the root of the teeth.
Stomatitis : Inflammation of the mucus membrane of the mouth.
Cancrum oris : Gangrenous stomatitis.

Dental caries
Bacillus acidophiles, a normal inhabitant of the mouth cavity acts on the carbohydrate material that has been left on the surfaces, pits and fissures of the teeth, produce lactic acid that dissolves the tooth structure.Later this will form cavities reach the pulp, pain ensures and the pulp cavity dies. Once the decay has started there is no cure.

Periodontal diseases
This is also known as 'Pyorrhoea' or pus formation in the sockets of teeth. This is the common cause for the loss of teeth in people over 40 years of age. It develops in four stages.
Gingivitis, characterised by the bleeding gums is the first stage. Periodontists is the second stage in which there is inflammation if the tissue that supports and surrounds the teeth. In the third stage acute necrotizing  ulcerative gingivitis develops which cause mobility of the teeth, purulent discharges and tissue atrophy. The patient may experience severe pain. Destruction of the teeth supporting structures is the fourth stage. The peridontium (gums) atrophies to the point that appears to have completely receded away from the tooth. Without adequate supporting structure, the teeth become loose and they fall out.
Formation of sordes
 Brown crusts which are formed on the teeth and lips are called sordes. It is a collection of food , mucus and bacteria. Lack of oral hygiene, insufficient intake of fluids in illness, the drying of mucus membrane particularly in case of mouth breathing are the common cause of formation of sore and crusts on the teeth and gums.
Formation of calculus
In neglected mouth, a sticky colourless layer of mucus material containing streptococcus forms on the teeth. If it is allowed to remain on the teeth it becomes calcified. This calcified, hard and tenacious material is called calculus (tartar). Ordinary brushing will not remove this calculus. It needs a cleaning by dentist. Calculus is a primary cause for gum diseases and dental caries. 
  •  A clean mouth makes a person feel clean and comfortable. A set of sound teeth is a valuable asset because it contributes to the personal appearance. Good oral hygiene makes a person feel socially acceptable and to have self respect. Hence it is advised to have brushing of teeth in the morning as well as in the evening. The mouth should be rinsed after every meal to dislodge any food particle left between the teeth.
  • Prevent dehydration of the tissues by the administration of enough fluids.
  • Care must be taken in brushing the teeth, not to cause any injury to the gums by the hard bristles. After brushing the teeth, the gums should be massaged with the fingers to stimulate the circulation.
  • Care must be taken to select a good dentifrice. Dentifrices clean the mouth through mechanical action rather than by chemical action on the bacteria.
  • The brushing of teeth should be done in such a way that the brush reaches all five surfaces of every teeth - the inner surface, the outer surface, the two sides, the lower surfaces of the upper row and the upper surface of the lower row. Brushing is done from the gum to the enamel.
  • The use of emollients such as creams, aids in softening the dry lips and prevent cracking of lips.
  • For healthy teeth and gums a well balanced diet is necessary.

Friday, 23 September 2011

Diet in Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) - Under Haemodialysis

Your diet will be very important in helping you to feel better and achieve successful treatment. The following dietary nutrients are especially important to regulate in the person receiving dialysis treatment; protein, sodium (salt), potassium, calories and fluids. A dietitian can tell you specifically which foods you should avoid and which foods would benefit you, according to their sodium, potassium and protein content. In general, there are less dietary restrictions after kidney transplant.
It is important that you follow these guidelines that have been suggested specially for you.

(A) Fluid intake
It is extremely important that you strictly adhere to the fluid intake allowance prescribed by your doctor. If you take more fluids than allowed, water will accumulate in your body, leading to serious complications such as a pulmonary edema and hypertension. Generally your fluid intake should be such that the weight gain is restricted to 1.5-2 kg between two haemodialysis sessions.

(B) Sodium (salt) intake
Your doctor will prescribed you a specific amount of salt to be taken per day. Please make sure that you consume the prescribed amount of salt (and not more) every day. Too much of salt intake will result in hypertension, increased thirst etc. Too little salt also will lead to problems such as weakness, and hypotension during dialysis; therefore it is important to take the prescribed amount of salt every day.
Salt substitutes (Lona salt) contain high potassium, hence avoid such preparations.

(C) Potassium intake
Reduce potassium intake
Increase in the potassium level of your blood will have very serious consequences and therefore, it is important that your potassium intake is restricted to the minimum possible. Following food items are rich in potassium and all of them should be avoided or taken in very restricted quantities.
(1) Fruits
Please obtain specific instructions from your dietitian regarding the restriction of these in your diet. The dietitian will help you to choose a low potassium diet which will best suit your particular requirements. Only one fruit (100 gms) can be taken per day (pineapple, apple, papaya or guava).
(2) Vegetables
All vegetables contain potassium. Wash, peel and cut vegetables into small pieces, soak in warm water for 2-3hrs, discard water and add large volume of fresh water, cook and discard water.
(3) Others
Tamarind, spices, condiments and coconut are to be used in very small quantities. They contain very high amount of potassium.
(4) Avoid
Avoid nuts, jaggery, instant coffee, chocolate, cocoa powder and salt substitutes (Lona salt)

(D) Protein intake
In the pre dialysis phase of Chronic Renal Failure(CRF) all the patients are advised to restrict protein intake. Once the patient is on regular dialysis he/she should take high protein diet (fish, chicken without fat, egg white for non-vegetarians and soya protein for vegetarians)

(E) Calorie intake
It is important that your calorie intake is adequate while you are on maintenance dialysis. Inadequate calorie intake will result in loss of weight, generalized weakness, reduced resistance to infections etc. Therefore, please check with your doctor regarding your daily calorie allowance and adhere to the recommendations given by the doctor.

(F) Dietary intake during the dialysis procedure
You are allowed to take anything you like, during the dialysis, but it must be consumed within the first hour of you dialysis. Even food items rich in potassium may be taken during this time. If you wish to take such items, please make sure that you inform the dialysis technician or nurse who is taking care of your dialysis. When you inform them, they will be able to ensure adequate removal of the excess potassium consumed during the first hour of dialysis.

Sunday, 18 September 2011


The following are the methods of transmission of cross infection :
Direct contact : The organisms can be transmitted directly from person to person through kissing, sexual contact, droplet infection and infected hands.
Indirect contact : Contact with the secretions and excretions of the infected persons.
Through fomites : Eg., instruments, utensils etc.
Through contaminated food and water.
Through insects.
Through dust.
Through carriers.

  1. The hospital should be well ventilated.
  2. Maintain the general cleanliness of the hospital. Sweeping and mopping of the floor should be done daily with antiseptic lotions and damp dusting should be done to keep the articles free from dust. All the articles are kept clean and dry. Once in a week, roof is swept to remove the cobwebs. Beds, lockers, stools etc should wash and cleaned. The mattress, pillows and other unwashable articles are exposed to sunlight and aired. Periodical white washing of the walls, painting of the doors and windows etc., should be done.
  3. Safe food and water supply : Many diseases are transmitted through food and water. Kitchen and pantry are protected from flies. There must be provision for safe water supply.
  4. Safe disposal of excreta : Urine, stool, sputum etc., should be disposed safely. The bedpans, urinals, sputum cups etc., are cleaned and disinfected before it is used for the next patient.
  5. Safe disposal of refuse : Discarded dressings, garbage etc., are collected daily and burnt to prevent the spread of infections.
  6. Destruction of rodents and insects : Rodents and insects play a great role in the spreading of diseases, so, they should be destroyed.
Barrier nursing or isolation technique is intended to confined the micro-organisms within a given and recognized area. There are a number of isolation techniques and precautions used to prevent the spread of infections.

Respiratory isolation : Respiratory isolation is indicated in the situations where the pathogens are spread on droplets from the respiratory tract. In this type of isolation, masks are generally worn by the nurses. Gowns are also worn when caring for the small infants because of the possibility of drooling by the infants. When possible the patients are taught to cover their noses and mouths with several layers tissue paper or handkerchief. If tissue paper is used they should be disposed properly. Handkerchiefs are cleaned and disinfected before it is used again. Restrict the number of visitors. Precautions must be taken when collecting sputum specimens from the patients. When attending to a patient with respiratory infection, the nurses should keep a reasonable distance to prevent the droplet infection and to prevent breathing contaminated air. If the nurse suffering from respiratory diseases should not attend to the patients.

Enteric isolation : Enteric isolation is indicated when the pathogens are transmitted in faeces. For this type of isolation it is not necessary to wear a mask, but it is recommended that gloves and gowns be worn when handling soiled articles.
Thorough hand-washing should be emphasized both by the patients and the nurses. The excreta may be disinfected by adding lime to it before the disposal. The soiled articles such as linen should be disinfected before it is sent for washing.

Wound and Skin isolation : This type of isolation is for pathogens which are found in wounds and can be transmitted by the contact with the wounds or by contact with the articles contaminated with the wound discharges. Usually gowns and gloves are worn in this type of isolation. Important point to remember is the safe disposal of dressings and discharges from the wounds and the disinfection of the articles. Strict isolation techniques should be followed when caring for the patients with abscesses, boils, infected burns, gas-gangrene, anthrax, rabies, tetanus, venereal diseases, scabies etc. All the articles used for these patients should be kept separate.
Great care should be taken by the nurses to prevent cuts or abrasions on their hands. Frequent and thorough hand washing reduces the chances of infection.

Blood isolation : This type of isolation is intended to prevent transmission of pathogens that are found in blood. Therefore any equipment that comes in contact with the patient's blood should be carefully disinfected before touching another object or person. Use of mosquito nets are also emphasized to prevent this type of infection.

Friday, 16 September 2011

What about Carbs?

A lot of people believed that one of the main drawbacks of common Indian diet is the excess consumption of carbohydrate. In India, rice or wheat are using for preparing most of the dishes. Along with that vegetables, legumes, meat, poultry, fish or eggs are used in smaller portions as side dishes. The main role of these side dishes are to add spice and taste to the main dish. But now the concepts have being changing.
Now experts saying that foods which are rich in carbohydrate are essential for a good nutrition in diabetes.

The carbohydrate present in the foods is the only nutrient that make a higher impact on the blood glucose level. Insulin plays the main role in controlling our blood glucose level. The balance between carbohydrate that we taken and insulin produced by our body or taken as medication impacts blood glucose level and diabetes control.

What type of foods contain carbohydrate?
All the foods that we have taken won't give us the adequate nutrients, which are essential for our body. The amount of nutrients varies in different foods. The three essential nutrients that we need are carbohydrate, fat and protein. Most of the calories in foods shown, are from carbohydrate. Some of these foods contain good or healthful carbs, and other containing less-healthful carbs.

A food containing Good/Healthful carbohydrate
Carbohydrate containing foods which are rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber, helps us to avoid empty calories from added sugars. These are comes under the line of healthful carbohydrate foods. Similar servings of related foods may surprise you nutrition wise. For example, 1/2 cup of orange juice with pulp (fiber) and enhanced with calcium offers more nutrition than 1/2 cup of orange drink, which gets most of its calories from corn syrup. Taking fiber is a healthy way to lose weight and at the same time to keep maintaining a good digestion. Having a healthful carbohydrate instead of less-healthful carbohydrate is considered as smart eating.

Carbohydrate rich foods
Samples of foods with Healthful Carbohydrate (little or no added sugar)
  • Bran cereal.
  • Beans.
  • Popcorn.
  • Berries.
  • Pear.
  • Whole grain pasta.

How much carbohydrate do you need to get your essential vitamins, minerals and fiber?
Most of the experts suggest that you get 45-65 percent of your calories from carbohydrate sources. If you eat less carbohydrate, especially if you take lesser than 1,500 calories daily, won't gives you the needed nutrients. Eat unrefined, nutrient-rich foods containing carbohydrate - whole grain, unprocessed and fiber-filled foods rather than refined starches and sugar-added foods and drinks, which contains few nutrients and lots of calories. "Even while eating out, you have to be smart and work around what you get. Increase your intake of vegetables, for instance".

Thursday, 15 September 2011


You can have your cake and eat it too. Now a days sweeteners offer great options for reducing carbohydrate, lowering calories and yielding such delicious results that you simply do not miss real sugar. You will be spoilt for choice with this list..

Some of the popular Sugar substitutes / Sweeteners and their brand names :

Sugar substitutes
  • Sucralose  - Splenda, Zero, Sugar Free Natura approved by FDA.
  • Aspartame - Equal, Sweetex, Sugar Free, Sugar Free Gold.
  • Stevia - Stevi0cal, Gwiser, Dr Shugar, So Sweet.
  • Acesul - Sweet One.
  • Saccharin - Sweet 'N' Low, Sweet Twin, Necta Sweet, Sweetex.
  • Other sugar alcohols - Sorbitol, Xylitol, Mannitol, Malitol etc.


There are many advantages of using artificial / reduced calorie sweeteners. some of them are :
  • Weight loss. Overweight / Obese individuals often choose to have artificial sweeteners in their foods so that they can reduce the total calorie intake in their diet, which in turn leads to weight loss by creating a negative energy balance. By doing so, they do not have to totally avoid or sacrifice the foods they love to eat.
  • Diabetes Mellitus. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the world, especially type 2 diabetes, people have started using artificial sweeteners to limit their total calorie intake as well as maintain their sugar levels by avoiding simple sugars, and enjoying most of the foods they like.
  • Dental problems. Sugar substitutes are not fermented by the micro flora of the dental plaque, and therefore they are tooth friendly.

Q. Is it advisable for people without any serious health-weight problems to be using sugar substitutes? Should it be used in moderation? Why?
A. Artificial sweeteners should still not play an important role in a healthy and balanced diet. In spite of the green signal given to most of the sweeteners, they are no substitute for good nutrition. They do not contain calories.

Wednesday, 14 September 2011

Insuring a Healthy Future

Diabetes can prove to be quite expensive. Glucometers, medications, insulin shots, and the risk of diabetes-triggered health complications...... Opting for the right kind of insurance can keep you hassle-free, but knowledge is key.

After spoke to an insurance professional, here are some Questions and relevant Answers which can help an insurance user to find the right facts.

Q.What are the IRDA (Insurance Regulatory Development Agencyguideline for medical insurance for diabetic people?
A.There are no specific guideline for diabetic people. There are general guidelines for medical insurance and diabetes comes under that like any other disease.

Q.Is daily medication, which is very important in diabetes and goes on for years, covered under insurance?
A.No, day to day medication and regular tests are not covered. Testing devices such as glucometers are also not covered. To get insurance benefits, a person has to get admitted for at least 24 hours.

Q.Then why should a diabetic person take medical insurance,knowing that most of his expenses will not be covered?
A.While it is true that you normally don't get admitted to hospital due to diabetes, there are other complications which may arise due to diabetes and need to be treated in the hospital. In that case medical insurance helps.

Q.What are the compensation structures and processes?
A.Again there is nothing specific for diabetes. There are two ways of getting claim under medical insurance. One is to pay all the expenses at the time of treatment and then get them reimbursed from the insurance company according to your policy. The other option is to use cashless cards issued under the Preferred Provider Petwork (PPN). Here all a person needs to do is to provide his cashless card to the hospital which is under PPN. Then the insurance company regarding the payments. You don't need to pay anything in cash.

Q.Tell us more about cashless treatment and PPN?
A.A card issued after taking a policy from a Third party Administrator. the card contains all the required details about you and the policy you have taken and it can be used anywhere in India with hospitals who are registered under PPN. It applies when a person gets admitted to a hospital for a minimum period of 24 hours for the treatment  of a disease which comes under the policy insurance you have taken. It covers the cost of hospitalization and other charges and cost of tests and medicines 30 days prior and 60 days after admission to the hospital for treatment. This hospitalization for minimum 24 hours clause applies to both cashless and pay-now-get-reimbursed-later cases.

Q.What are the problems with cashless facilities?
A.IRDA has prescribed a room cap for policies. It says that if a person has taken a policy of say 5 lakhs then charges for room in hospital which he can take for treatment should exceed Rs 5000/- day. This was done to control the exorbitant money some hospitals were charging once they came to know that the patient is under medical insurance.
But now, some of the leading high-end hospitals have withdrawn from the PPN facility, arguing that they cannot lower their charges and thus their quality of treatment, considering the room cap.

Q.How much time does it normally take for a person to get reimbursed?
A.After the documents are submitted to the insurance company it normally takes 1-1.5 months. Sometimes though not often, the insurance company might investigate a claim if the document provided is not sufficient or during filling the form for taking a policy the policyholder intentionally did not reveal the fats.

Q.Your views on Mediclaim facilities provided by companies for their employees?
A.Its a good thing. It covers pre-existing disease from which an employee may be suffering, including diabetes. Also regular medical expenses can be reimbursed like tests and medicines.
Some essential requirements that should be checked before and after any medical procedures.

Are you sure that's the right patient?
Identification band with Bar Code
Use at least two of these methods to identify your patient when provide care, treatment, or services.

  • Patient's name
  • An assigned identification number.
  • Patient's birth date.
  • Patient's phone number.
  • Bar coding that includes two or more patient's specific identifiers.
  • Do not use the patient's room number as proof of identification.

Hand off with care

Hand Off
Hand off your patient to the next care giver with accurate and relevant information about the patients care, treatment and services.

Tips for conducting an effective hand off :
  • Include up to date patient information.
  • Use "read back" or "repeat back" techniques.
  • Limit or minimize interruptions.
  • Use clear language which he/she can understand.
  • Allow time for questions and answers.

TIME OUT  (For eliminating surgical mistakes)
Are you operating on the Right patient? Right site? Right procedure?

Verify the correct person, site and procedure.
  • At admission
  • At the time of surgery procedures is scheduled.
  • Any time a patient is transferred from one care giver to another.
  • While the patient is awake.
  • Before the patient leaves pre-operative area.

Review the following :
  • Documentation such as patient history and consent.
  • Relevant test result or x-rays.
  • Required implants and special equipment.

Surgical Site Marking

Always mark the Operative site, be sure to :
  • Make the mark at or near the incision site.
  • Use the word "YES" or your initials instead of an X be consistent.
  • Involve the patient in the site marking.

Conduct a " Time out " with the surgical team or operative. Check for :
  • Correct patient.
  • Correct side and site.
  • Agreement on the procedure to be done.
  • Documentation of the time out.

Monday, 12 September 2011

Setup Your Meal

Skipping your meals is not at all an easy way for weight loss or blood sugar control. Instead of that, go through this tips and find it's working.
1. Get your morning blood sugar reduced.
While we're sleeping, our cells use up the glucose from our last meal and the liver sends more glucose into the blood. In type 2 diabetes, the liver can't able to find, there is already more than enough glucose present. "Our fasting blood sugars have much more to do with your liver and hormonal functions, that what you ate for dinner last night." Taking a breakfast which is rich in carbohydrate, tells the liver to stop releasing glucose. And that helps you to make a lower fasting sugar level.

Plan for three meals daily, which contains at least three food groups (like the protein, starch, and vegetables)

2. Make your levels steady.
Eating foods irregularly can have you "ups and down's between normal blood sugars and high blood sugars". A regular meal can give you a fixed rise in your blood glucose. If you're taking any kind of blood glucose-lowering medications, skipping meals or eating too little can cause a severe decline in your blood glucose level. Foods, especially carbohydrate rich foods, over three meals a day (and snacks if you want them) helps you to maintain steady blood glucose levels.

Feel tired or thirsty? A glass of water and a bit of exercise may help you to beat fatigue.

3. Quit fatigue and boost up your energy.
If you love to have a snack, recommends that you enjoy a small amount of carbohydrate to keep energy levels up and enough protein to help you feel full. "A healthy snack might not give you instant energy,"but it can makes a big difference - you no longer feels fatigue as you used to."

4.  Find the patterns in your blood glucose results.
It find's little hard to sort out the causes of high and low blood glucose and to determine your best eating, exercise,and medication strategies. If your blood glucose levels are unpredictable, eating similar amounts of foods at particular times a day and keeping accurate records of the results will help you and your health care provider to identify the type and guide adjustments to your treatment plan. Eating randomly makes it hard to find the type and to control blood sugar levels.

You can control diabetes

Hooked to butter chicken but hate the gym? Identify what's stopping you from taking the path to self-care. That is the first step towards making lasting changes.

If your fasting blood glucose is 100-125 mg/dl, it is likely that you have pre-diabetes. Your blood glucose is higher than the normal but not high enough to diagnose diabetes. But don't panic yet. Research shows that if you follow a healthful eating plan (especially limiting how much fat you eat and getting plenty of fiber), be active about 30 minutes five days a week, and lose just 5-7 percent of your starting body weight, you can hope to delay or prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes without going on medication.

Fruits and Vegetables
Here's how to take the first step.
Completing a small change for the better - something as simple as choosing fresh vegetable juice over soda - encourages the good behaviours.

Barriers for your diabetic care.
Three main three things that stands as barriers to diabetes self care are: depression, misconceptions and a sense of deprivation.

Depression: This condition can get in the way of taking care of your diabetes. Depression leads to some other factors which can affect blood glucose, such as overeating, failing to get adequate sleep, or e inability to coax yourself to do some exercise, even for a walk. Get  a way out from depression and you will be able to take care of diabetes.

Misconceptions: If you think that you need not worry about your diabetes until you get older, you're likely to wait too long to take control. This will make you difficult to gain healthful blood glucose, blood pressure and blood lipids levels, and putting yourself at  a risk for complications. Likewise, if you think there's nothing you can do to control your glucose level, then you're likely to do nothing at all. Diabetes is a complex condition which can take into control by small changes in your lifestyle, can improve your health and how you feel.

Deprivation: It founds that, everyone has their own strong opinions about what you can and cannot eat with diabetes. If you've been told too often what not to eat, you may constantly feel deprived. Understand the  facts - talk to a registered dietitian or diabetes educator and learn how you can add your favorite foods into a nutritious meal plan.

Sunday, 11 September 2011

Can insulin cause weight gain?

Some people may experience weight gain when they are taking insulin at first few weeks.

  • When there is an increase in blood glucose levels, your body  will gradually wasting the calories you eat because there's no insulin to help the body to convert the food into glucose. When your blood glucose gets into better control with insulin, your body makes better use of calories from the food you eat.
  • Due to high increase in blood glucose levels, you may be get a  chance to dehydrated. This may seems varying your kilo's.
  • The most important, insulin can make your blood glucose too low if it's not adjusted correctly. If you're repeatedly trying to treat hypoglycemia with food, can result in excess calories and weight gain.

What should you do? Work with your physician to adjust your insulin doses to reduce hypoglycemia. Learn how to treat occasional decrease in blood glucose levels with glucose tablets rather than food; it's much easier to control the amount of calories you eat. If your weight gain is out of control, get in touch with a registered dietitian to get an ideal diet plan.

Did you know?

Green Tea
Unlike other teas, Green tea is not fermented; the tea leaves are lightly steamed before being dried. Steaming inactives the enzymes (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) thus preventing the polyphenols, the active constituents in the herb.
One of the main antioxidant found in Green tea, Epigallocatechin-3-gallate(EGCG) has been found to be 100 times more effective than vitamin C and 25 times than vitamin E. EGCG is also twice as powerful as resveratrol, a polyphenol that limit the negative effects of smoking and fatty foods.

Green Tea & The Heart
Green tea plays a role in reducing the nagative effects of bad cholesterol. It lowers triglyceride levels and increases the production of 'good' cholesterol, improving the LDL-HDL cholesterol ratio.

Green Tea & Obesity
Green tea could help weight loss by increasing the metabolic rate. It speeds up fat oxidation and slows the digestion of carbohydrate.

Green Tea & Cancer
Green tea polyphenols strongly inhibit tumor cells 'DNA' synthesis and peroxide radical generation. Besides inhibiting the growth of cancer cells without harming healthy tissues.

Green Tea & Arthritis
Green Tea protects joints against cartilage breakdown and reduces inflammation, thereby preventing arthritis.

Green Tea & Aging
Green tea may delay aging by preventing the accumilation of free radicals and the resultant damage caused to the DNA. it also enhances immunity.

Green Tea & Teeth
Green tea with its fluoride content helps to prevent tooth decay and fights cavities by inhibiting the growth of oral bacteria.

Green Tea as Beauty Aid
On topical application, Green tea may protect the skin against the damage caused by ultraviolet rays. it also acts as a skin rejuvenant.

7 Action Steps For Protect Your ' HEART '

Yes, you can prevent or minimize heart disease (and other diabetes complications, too)

1. Shed a few kilos. Losing just 5-7 percent of your weight (that's 5-7 for a 100-kilo person) can decrease the harmful inflammation and insulin resistance that characterize type 2 diabetes. This is especially effective early on, before type 2 diabetes is diagnosed or detected.

2. Take healthy food and be active-- always. Choosing the healthful foods, controlling portions, and being physically active will serve you well your entire life.

3. Reach and maintain your ABC targets. If you're not meeting the targets for blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, ask your health care provider to setup your treatment. "When it comes to reach some great efforts on lipids and helps to reduce heart diseases, research shows targeting LDL is important."

4. Have your medicine. You may be taking a group of medications to control your blood glucose,blood pressure and cholesterol-no one enjoys that cost or to do so. But some research shows that  patient's with diabetes are likely to need more medications over time to manage the progression of diabetes and heart disease. Talk to your health care provider if you have any difficulty in taking or affording your medications.

5. Includes an aspirin a day. Daily intake of aspirin in low dose is recommended for many people at risk for or with heart disease and diabetes. But ask before your doctor before taking aspirin.

6. If you smoke. If you do smoke, ask to your health care provider about how to quit smoking.

7. Go for health tests you need. Your doctor can refer diabetes medical tests for you that can detect any immediate or hidden problems and help you identify the symptoms. This will help you to spot problems early and initiate a treatment quickly.

Saturday, 10 September 2011


Diet is as important in the treatment of diseases. A modification in the diet with more nutrients can cure certain diseases. eg; A patient suffering from peptic ulcer needs a bland diet for his recovery; a salt free diet can reduce the blood pressure in a patient with hypertension.

For every one, eating is an enjoyment. When the person is ill, the food intakes become a problem. The nurse's responsibility in the care of a sick in regard to nutrition, can be analysed into four major areas:
  1. Assisting patients to obtain needed nourishment either through feeding or assisting with eating. eg., tube feeding, feeding a helpless patient to eat his food etc.
  2. Motivating patient to eat.
  3. Assisting patients to obtain needed nourishment by proper planning of the diet.
  4. Assisting patients with special problems about therapeutic diets eg., helping a patient to accept a salt free diet.

Principles involved in the diet therapy
  1. The diet must be planned in relation to changes in metabolic occurring as a result of disease.
  2. The diet must be planned according to the food habits of the patient based on culture, religion, socio-economic status, personal references (likes and dislikes), physiological and psychological conditions, huger, appetite and satiety.
  3. As far as possible, changes in the diet should be brought gradually and adequate explanations are given with the changes made, if any.
  4. In short and acute illness, the food should not be forced, because his appetite is very poor but he may soon recover the normal appetite. But in prolonged illness it is essential to provide adequate amount of food to prevent wasting of tissues.
  5. Whatever the diet prescribed, there should be variety of foods for selection.
  6. Small and frequent feeds are preferred to the usual three meals.
  7. Hot foods should be served hot and cold foods should be served cold.

Modification of nutrients in therapeutic diet
Carbohydrate are well tolerated and are necessary to maintain the stores of liver glycogen. It is particularly important in patients with high fevers, liver diseases, hyperthyroidism etc. In the absence of carbohydrate, the body fat may be used for energy which may result in the formation of ketone bodies and they accumulate in the blood - a condition known as ketosis. Adequate amount of carbohydrate intake can prevent ketosis. Carbohydrates are given in easily digested forms such as glucose, sugars, gruels etc.

The fat is often not tolerated in illness especially if nausea and vomiting are present. Adequate amount of carbohydrate can replace the requirement of the body for fat.

In illness, especially when there is infection, the protein metabolism is usually greatly increased because of the increased destruction of protein. If an adequate amount of protein is not given, the body will use up the tissue proteins and the patient will loose weight. In illness there is kidney and liver damages the protein intake should be high.

The requirements of minerals should be maintained in illness especially that of calcium and iron. Sodium and potassium may sometimes need to be restricted especially when there is hypertension, oedema, ascites etc.

Friday, 9 September 2011



  1. Anorexia: Loss of appetite.
  2. Dyspepsia: Indigestion. A feeling of fullness, discomfort, nausea and anorexia.
  3. Dysphagia: Difficulty in swallowing.
  4. Food: Any substance which can be used by the body for its growth, development and repair.
  5. Nausea: A sensation of sickness with inclination to vomit.
  6. Nutrients: Constituents of, carbohydrate, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, water.
  7. Regurgitation: Back flow. eg., back flow of partly digested food into the mouth from the stomach.
  8. Vomiting: Expulsion of stomach contents via the oesophagus and the mouth.


The appetite is increased by:
  • Sight and smell of food (attractive serving).
  • Food preference (likes and dislikes if the individual).
  • Physical and mental relaxation (freedom from hurry, worry, pain, stress and fatigue).
  • Regularity in eating (spacing of meals).
  • Pleasant environment (attractive and cheerful atmosphere).
  • Exercise.

The appetite is decreased by:

  • Physical and mental fatigue.
  • Hurry, worry and fear.
  • Unpleasant environment and experiences.
  • Lack of exercises.
  • Irregular meals.
  • Long spacing of meals timings.


On the Cardio-vascular system

  • Cardiac output is increased 25 to 30%.
  • Patient develops orthostatic hypo tension - a feeling of weakness and dizziness when they first get up after a period of rest.
  • Formation of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

On the Respiratory system
  • Decreased chest expansion and decreased chest movements resulting in the decreased ventilation of the lungs.
  • Stasis and pooling of secretions leads to hypostatic pneumonia.
  • When a patients respiratory movements are decreased, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs is severely affected and this leads to tissue hypoxia.

On the Gastro-intestinal tract
  • Development of anorexia due to general weakness, worry and boredom accompanying immobility.
  • Development of constipation due to change in the diet, changes in the daily routine, decrease in the level of activity, strange experiences such as use of a bedpan, unnatural position used for defecation, etc.

On the Renal function
  • Difficulty in urination due to lack of privacy, use of bedpans, unnatural positions. This leads to bladder distension.
  • Urinary stasis and formation of renal calculi.

On the Metabolism
  • Decreased muscle tone.
  • Muscle atrophy.

On the Musculo-skeletal system
  • Demineralization of the bones.
  • Contractures of the muscle.
  • Stiffness and pain in the joints.
  • Muscle cramps.
  • Foot drop.

On the Mental activity
  • Lethargy, loneliness and depression.
  • Anxiety and insomnia.
  • Emotional disturbances leading to hostility.
  • Mental disturbances leading to neurosis and psychosis.

On the Skin
  • Bed sore


Rest and sleep are basic concepts in nursing. While they are interrelated, they are neither interchangeable nor identical. Sleep is necessary for the subjective feelings of being rested.

The term rest means not only the feeling of peace, relief and relaxation, but it implies from anything that tries, disturbs or worries. Therefore rest is defined as a state of relatively decreased bodily work, either physical, mental or both, which leaves the individual feeling refreshed and revived. During illness bed rest is limiting the physical activity by keeping the patient in bed does not guarantee the state of rest.

When a patient is hospitalized, he/she is vulnerable to rest disorders. Already anxious due to illness, he/she is subjected to a new environment, new faces, loss of privacy, strange noises and experiences, frequent disturbances and to painful procedures.

Beneficial effects of rest in illness.
  • Relives pain due to surgical procedures, trauma, fractures and wounds. Rest by decreasing movements prevents excessive irritation of the injured tissues.
  • Promotes healing and repair of injured tissues(anabolism) by reducing the metabolic need of tissues.
  • It reduces oxygen demand of such vital organs as heart muscles, there by reduce the discomfort and pain in the coronary heart diseases.
  • Haste the recovery of the weak, exhausted, febrile and debilitated patients.
  • It relives oedema and venous congestion (varicose veins).
  • A period of rest will provide relaxation not only to the body but also the mind.
  • A period of rest improves the functioning of the different organs such as kidney, liver, etc.

Thursday, 8 September 2011


Prior areas for pediculus infection
The term pediculosis is defined as the state of being infected with lice. Lice or pediculi are small wingless blood sucking insects which are parasitic on warm blooded animals. They are found on head (pediculus capitis), the body (pediculus corporis) and the perineal area, eye brows, eye lashes and beard (pediculus pubis). Pediculosis is associated with poor hygiene, crowded living conditions and exposure to other individuals with pediculosis.

Lice can be transferred from one person to other through direct contact or indirect contact. It gets easily transmitted from person to person, perhaps sleeping together, sitting together etc. They can also be transmitted through clothing, bedding, combs etc.

Dangers of pediculosis
  • The patient complaints of severe itching of the scalp and scratches the head continuously giving rise to abscess formation.
  • In severe infestations, the hair may appear to be heavily sprinkled with dandruff.
  • The itching of the scalp is a source of discomfort to the patient causing restlessness and insomnia.
  • The lice are blood suckers and cause anaemia.
  • They spread the diseases eg; typhus fever, relapsing fever, trench fever.
  • Itching of the scalp result in the scalp injury and the injured area is subjected to infection which leads to infected glands.

Prevention of pediculosis
Pediculus capitus
Pediculus pubis

Pediculus corporis
Prevention is easier than controlling. For this, proper personal hygiene concept should be practiced by their life. Combing the hair daily, washing it frequently, keeping the skin and clothes clean will solve the problem. Any patient complaining about itching or scratches the head, needs thorough examination of their hair and scalp, body and linen to discover lice. If lice are found on the patients head or body, follow the prescribed treatment.

Parasiticides use in the treatment of pediculosis
  1. D.D.T 5% or 10% (add talcum powder to dilute it)
  2. Carbolic lotion 1:40 (it is an irritant to the skin)
  3. Equal parts of kerosene oil and coconut oil.
  4. Preparations containing gamma benzene hexachloride available in the market.

Application of parasiticides

The parasiticide are applied thoroughly on the scalp (to the body if necessary) and is left for overnight. On the next day a thorough bath is given and the linen is changed. The linen should be thoroughly disinfected to remove the lice from the clothes.
Since the parasiticides are not effective against the nits(eggs) the procedure is repeated after a week.